Research Outcomes Management Essay
Events such as the Nuremberg Code and Tuskegee syphilis study (1932-1972) significantly shaped research ethics. In the Nuremberg code, criminal proceedings were opened against German doctors and administrators for conducting medical experiments on prisoners without their consent (Gaille, 2019). The majority of the study subjects died while others sustained permanent disabilities. As a result, the Nuremberg code was set that required consent from study subjects and research benefits to outweigh the risks. The Tuskegee syphilis study was conducted on 600 African American men, where 400 had syphilis diagnoses. They were examined but were not informed of their diagnoses (Alsan et al., 2020). The participants were not treated even though penicillin was available and its efficacy in treating syphilis was proven. Sometimes when the research subjects were diagnosed with syphilis by other doctors, researchers would intervene to prevent treatment. The majority of the study participants died of Phyllis during the course of the study. The study was stopped in 1973 after its publication (Alsan et al., 2020). The Helsinki declaration was established in 1964 and it guides research involving human beings. Therefore, any research, including evidence-based research findings should be in the best interests of the patients and the risks and benefits should be balanced as per the ethical principle of beneficence and non-maleficence. Moreover, informed consent should be sought from the study participants and their participation should be voluntary. Additionally, as per the philosophical tenets of deontology/utilitarianism, research should focus on what benefits patients. Therefore, research should focus on the outcomes; the outcomes need to benefit but not harm the research participants.
Alsan, M., Wanamaker, M., & Hardeman, R. R. (2020). The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis: A Case Study in Peripheral Trauma with Implications for Health Professionals. Journal of general internal medicine, 35(1), 322–325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-05309-8
Gaille, M. (2019). For a new” Nuremberg Code”: some contemporary issues of consent. Med Sci, 5(8-9):603-604.
Substantive Post Criteria:
· Stay on topic by addressing the question
· Paraphrase vs. quoting
· Check spelling and grammar before posting
· Cite and reference current sources in APA format
· Integrate nursing research
· Integrate practice experience
Provide an example how historical events influenced the development of current research ethics in relation to the philosophical tenets of deontology/utilitarianism and evidence-based research findings
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