Mechanism of Fever in Systemic Manifestations of Acute Inflammation Essay
Fever occurs due to the innate responses arising from an increased flow of blood to the infected or injured tissue (Blomqvist & Engblom, 2018). Therefore, fever is a systematic indication of inflammation that increased body temperature and triggers an immune response.
Hypothalamus regulates body temperature and the trigger of fever stimulates the discharge of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which acts on the hypothalamus. This creates a systemic body response, triggering heat-generating effects equal to the increased temperature set point. The increase of the temperature setpoint leads to the body raising its temperature by generating heat and retaining heat (García, 2020). Peripheral vasoconstriction decreased the loss of heat through the skin, which makes a person have chills or feel cold. On the other hand, norepinephrine triggers the increase of thermogenesis within adipose tissue and contraction of muscles by shivering, increasing the metabolic rate (Blomqvist & Engblom, 2018). If these measures are not adequate to have the brain’s body temperature match the set temperature point within the hypothalamus, more heat is generated by the brain through increased release of epinephrine and increased heat generation through increased shivering and muscle tone and by preventing further heat loss through vasoconstriction (Blomqvist & Engblom, 2018). After the temperature set point in the hypothalamus goes back to baseline, either through medication or spontaneously, the normal functions like sweating and mechanisms such as vasodilation and end-of shivering are utilized to cool the body and restore it to the new, lower temperature setting.
Blomqvist, A., & Engblom, D. (2018). Neural Mechanisms of Inflammation-Induced Fever. The Neuroscientist: a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology, and psychiatry, 24(4), 381–399. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858418760481
García, L. F. (2020). Immune response, inflammation, and the clinical spectrum of COVID-19. Frontiers in immunology, 11, 1441.
Describe the mechanism of fever in systemic manifestations of acute inflammation.
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